Categorized | Lab Tests

Blood Test: Clinical Biochemistry Values in Human Physiology and Medicine

UNDER REVIEW AND EDITING: VALUES NOT CONFIRMED
A reference range is a set of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results. The range is usually defined as the set of values 95% of the normal population falls within.

The reference range will vary, depending on the age, sex and race of a population, and even the instruments the laboratory uses to perform the tests. Furthermore, by definition, 5% of the normal population will fall outside the reference range.

  • Items marked with a ** are part of “CHEM-7” and CHEM-20
  • Items marked with a * are part of “CHEM-20”, but not CHEM-7

Category Test Low High Unit Comments
Electrolytes and Metabolites[3] ** Sodium (Na) 136 145 mmol/L
** Potassium (K) 3.5 4.5 mmol/L
Urea 2.5 6.4 mmol/L ** BUN – blood urea  nitrogen
Urea 7 18 mg/dL
** Creatinine – male 62 115 μmol/L
** Creatinine – female 53 97 μmol/L
** Creatinine – male 0.7 1.3 mg/dL
** Creatinine – female 0.6 1.1 mg/dL
** Glucose (fasting) 3.9 5.8 mmol/L See also glycosylated hemoglobin
** Glucose (fasting) 70 105 mg/dL
Liver function tests * Total Protein 60 80 g/L
* Albumin 35[4] 50 g/L
* Total Bilirubin 2 14 μmol/L
* Direct Bilirubin 0 4 μmol/L
* Alanine transaminase (ALT) 8 40 U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
* Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 40 130 U/L Higher in children and pregnant women.
* Gamma glutamyl transferase n/a 50 U/L
Other enzymes and proteins Creatine kinase (CK) – male 24[5] 195 U/L
Creatine kinase (CK) – female 24[6] 170 U/L
* Aspartate transaminase (AST) 8 35 U/L Also called serum glutamic oxatoacetic transaminase (SGOT)
* Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 85 285 U/L
Amylase n/a 120[7] U/L
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a 5[8] mg/L
D-dimer n/a 500 ng/mL
Other ions and trace metals Ionised calcium (Ca) 1.15 1.29 mmol/L Some calcium is bound to albumin, thus not measured by certain techniques.
* Total calcium (Ca) 2.05 2.55 mmol/L
Copper (Cu) 11[9] 24 μmol/L
Chloride (Cl) 98 106 μmol/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3) 18 23 mmol/L
Zinc (Zn) 10 17 μmol/L
Lipids Triglycerides 0.4 2 mmol/L
* Total cholesterol 3 5.0[10] mmol/L
HDL cholesterol (male) 0.7 1.9 mmol/L
(female) 0.9 2.4 mmol/L
LDL cholesterol 2.4 3[10] mmol/L Not valid when triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L.
Tumour markers Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) n/a 10 kU/l
Alpha1-AntiTrypsin (AAT) 20 53 mmol/L 150-350 mg/dL
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG) n/a 5 IU/l
CA-125 (also CA12.5) n/a 35 U/ml
CA15.3 n/a 28 U/ml
CA19.9 n/a 40 U/ml
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – non-smokers n/a 3 μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – smokers n/a 5 μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) n/a 4 μg/L
Hormones Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4 4.7 mIU/L Also called: Thyrotropin
Free thyroxine (FT4) 9 24 pmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) 2.5 5.3 pmol/L
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 1.3 15 pmol/L
Cortisol (0830 h) 250 850 nmol/L Cortisol levels are higher in the morning than at night.
Cortisol (1630 h) 110 390 nmol/L
Prolactin (male) n/a 450 mIU/L
(female) n/a 580 mIU/L
Testosterone (male) 8 38 nmol/L
(male prepuberty) 0.1 0.5 nmol/L
(female) 0.3 2.5 nmol/L

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