NO — Nitric Oxide

Nitric Oxide (NO) is connected to a wide range of beneficial physiological conditions and pathological conditions. People consume nutrients or nutraceuticals to boost the natural production of Nitric Oxide in the human body. Nitric Oxide is not consumed directly, although many products with names like NOS Pump allude to the production of Nitric Oxide. People attempt to boost Nitric Oxide with supplements or foods

Nitric Oxide is connected to vasodilation, which can lower blood pressure.

Nitric Oxide is connected to bronchodilation.

Nitric Oxide is connected to inflammation processes.

Nitric Oxide is involved in the pathogenesis and control of infectious diseases, tumors, autoimmune processes and chronic degenerative diseases.

Protective and toxic effects of Nitric Oxide are frequently seen in parallel processes.

Popular Claimed Benefits of Nitric Oxide

Nitric oxide boosters are used as pre-workout or concurrent supplements by weightlifters and other athletes to attempt to benefit from increased circulation in their choice of sport.

Nitric Oxide (NO) is an important cellular signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. It is a powerful vasodilator with a short half-life of a few seconds in the blood. Long-known pharmaceuticals such as nitroglycerine and amyl nitrite were found to be precursors to nitric oxide more than a century after their first use in medicine. Low levels of nitric oxide production are important in protecting organs such as the liver from ischemic damage. Nitric oxide production is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is essential for hepatic lipid metabolism under starvation.

Because of the importance of Nitric Oxide in neuroscience, physiology, and immunology, NO was proclaimed “Molecule of the Year” in 1992. Research into its function led to the 1998 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of nitric oxide as a cardiovascular signalling molecule.

Vasodilation
A scheme of the shear stress-induced EDRF-NO mechanism
Nitric oxide (NO) is of critical importance as a mediator of vasodilation in blood vessels. It is induced by several factors, and once synthesized by eNOS it results in phosphorylation of several proteins that cause smooth muscle relaxation. The vasodilatory actions of nitric oxide play a key role in renal control of extracellular fluid homeostasis and is essential for the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure. NO also plays a role in erection of the penis and clitoris.

Signaling Molecule in Inflammation and Immune Response
NO regulates inflammatory erythema and oedema and has cytotoxic action against micro-organisms. In some instances (such as reperfusion injury) NO has cytoprotective properties.

Production of large amounts of NO by activated macrophages accounts for their ability to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. NO synthesis in lymphocytes is questionable but cytokines secreted by activated lymphocytes regulate NO synthesis by macrophages.

Constitutive NO synthase is activated in neutrophils in response to inflammatory stimuli and NO has diverse, often biphasic effects on neutrophil functions. Increased concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (metabolites of NO) are present in arthritic joints.

NO is synthesized not only by migrated inflammatory cells but also by articular chondrocytes and inflamed synovial membrane. In the inflamed joint, NO regulates the synthesis of several inflammatory mediators and functions of inflammatory cells. In addition, NO seems to mediate some destructive effects of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1.

NO regulates several humoral and cellular responses in inflammation, having both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory properties depending on the type and phase of the inflammatory reaction.

See also …
Arginine

SOURCES:
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Cooke JP1. The pivotal role of nitric oxide for vascular health. Can J Cardiol. 2004 Aug;20 Suppl B:7B-15B.

Steinert JR1, Chernova T, Forsythe ID. Nitric oxide signaling in brain function, dysfunction, and dementia. Neuroscientist. 2010 Aug;16(4):435-52.

Guix FX1, Uribesalgo I, Coma M, Muñoz FJ. The physiology and pathophysiology of nitric oxide in the brain. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Jun;76(2):126-52.

Vanaja Paul and Perumal Ekambaram. Involvement of nitric oxide in learning & memory processes. Indian J Med Res. 2011 May; 133(5): 471–478.

Kalinchuk AV1, Lu Y, Stenberg D, Rosenberg PA, Porkka-Heiskanen T.
Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is required for recovery sleep. J Neurochem. 2006 Oct;99(2):483-98.