Categorized | Skeletal System

Skeletal System

The skeletal system is grouped in two categories: Axial Skeleton (the vertical axis including skull, vertebral column and rib cage) and (2) Appendicular Skeleton (including shoulder girdle, arms, hips and legs).

Here is the outline of the skeleton (bone quantity is the number in parentheses):

AXIAL SKELETON (80)
Cranium (8)
Frontal (1), Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Sphenoid (1), Ethmoid (1), Occipital (1)

Facial Bones (14)
Mandible (1), Maxilla (2), Zygomatic (2), Nasal (2), Lacrimal (2), Palatine (2), Inferior Nasal Concha (2), Vomer (1)

Hyoid in neck (1)

Ear Ossicles (6)
Malleus (2), Incus (2), Stapes (2)

Vertebral Column (26)
Cervical Vertebrae, C1-C7 (7)
Thoracic Vertebrae, T1-T12 (12)
Lumbar Vertebrae, L1-L5 (5)
Sacrum, S1-S5 (5 fused into 1)
Coccyx (4 fused into 1)

Thorax (25)
Sternum (1)
True Ribs – 7 each side (14)
False Ribs – 3 each side (6)
Floating Ribs – 2 each side (4)

APPENDICULAR SKELETON (126)
Shoulder Girdle or Pectoral Girdle (4)
Clavicle (2)
Scapula (2)

Upper Limb (60)
Humerus (2)
Ulna (2)
Radius (2)
Carpals (16)
Scaphoid ()
Trapezium (2)
Capitate (2)
Trapezoid (2)
Lunate (2)
Triquetrum (2)
Pisiform (2)
Hamate (2)
Metacarpals – 5 on each side (10)
Phalanges – thumb (pollox 2X1), others 3X4 on each side (28)

Hip or Pelvic Girdle (2)
Coxal Bone (os coxae) are 3 fused pairs:
Ilium, Ischium, Pubis

Lower Limb (60)
Femur (2)
Patella, Knee Cap (2)
Tibia (2)
Fibula (2)

Tarsals (14)
Talus (2)
Calcaneus (2)
Cuboid (2)
Navicular (2)
Medial Cuneiform (2)
Intermedius Cuneiform (2)
Lateral Cuneiform (2)

Metatarsals – 5 on each side (10)
Phalanges – toe (hallux 2X1), others 3X4 on each side (28)


  Common joints and joint range of motion in degrees.

Joints
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.

The joints of the human body:
articulations of hand and fingers (phalanges)
wrists (radiocarpal joints) — compound joints
elbows (humerus/ulna)
glenohumeral joints
acromioclavicular joints
humeroscapular joints
sternoclavicular joints
vertebral articulations
temporomandibular joints
sacroiliac joints
hip joints
knee
ankle
articulations of foot and toes (phalanges)

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